PhysioBank is a large and growing archive of physiological data. Please see the About PhysioBank page for more information about its data, and useful tools for finding, downloading, and visualizing it.
This page lists all currently available databases in the PhysioBank archives:
- Clinical Databases - Data from critical care clinical settings that may include demographics, vital sign measurements made at the bedside, laboratory test results, procedures, medications, caregiver notes, images and imaging reports, and mortality (both in and out of hospital).
- Waveform Databases - High resolution continuous recordings of physiological signals. Waveform databases are organized according to their signal and annotation types:
- Multi-Parameter Databases. Available signals vary, but may include ECG, continuous invasive blood pressure, respiration, oxygen saturation, and EEG, among others.
- ECG Databases. Also see Multi-Parameter Databases, most of which include ECG signals.
- Interbeat (RR) Interval Databases. These contain beat annotations obtained from ECG recordings, but the ECG signals are not available. Also see ECG Databases, most of which include beat annotations in addition to the original ECG signals.
- Other Cardiovascular Databases
- Gait and Balance Databases
- Neuroelectric and Myoelectric Databases. EEG, EHG, and more.
- Image Databases
- Synthetic Data
- Other Data
- Computing in Cardiology Challenge Datasets
Each database is placed into a class according to the following specifications. Contributed data are placed in classes 2 and 3 on acceptance, and may be admitted to class 1 after review and a public comment period.
- Class 1 - completed reference databases.
- Class 2 - archival copies of raw data that support published research, contributed by authors or journals.
- Class 3 - other contributed collections of data, including works in progress.
On this page, listings within each group are ordered by class, and then alphabetically by the name of the database. Those designated below as core databases are available from all PhysioNet mirrors. Visitors to these mirrors are redirected to the master PhysioNet server when following a link to a PhysioBank record outside of the core collection. You may not notice that any redirection has occurred unless your connection to the master server is significantly slower than your connection to the mirror.
- [Class 3] MIMIC Database. The original Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care database.
- [Class 3] MIMIC II Database. Consists of:
The *MIMIC II Clinical Database - contains clinical records for 32,536 subjects. This database contains results of laboratory tests, medications, ICD9 diagnoses, admitting notes, discharge summaries, and more. Each record contains data for a single subject, and many records span multiple ICU admissions for the same subject, including available medical history between ICU stays.
Researchers are encouraged to switch to the MIMIC-III clinical database listed below.
*This database is NOT open source. The Clinical Database is available to qualified investigators under terms of a data use agreement; see the getting access page for details.
Modified subsets of the MIMIC-II Clinical database include:
- The Public Subset of the MIMIC II Clinical Database contains portions of 110 records that were made freely available to support the PhysioNet/CinC Challenge 2009: Predicting Acute Hypotensive Episodes.
- The Indwelling Arterial Catheter Clinical Database contains clinical data for 1766 patients from the MIMIC II database. The data is used to investigate the effectiveness of indwelling arterial catheters in hemodynamically stable patients with respiratory failure for mortality outcomes.
The MIMIC II Waveform Database version 3 - a collection that includes 23,180 record sets for approximately 13,500 ICU patients. Almost all record sets include a waveform record containing digitized signals (typically including ECG, ABP, respiration, and SpO2, and frequently other signals) and a "numerics" record containing time series of periodic measurements, each presenting a quasi-continuous recording of vital signs of a single patient throughout an ICU stay (typically a few days, but many are several weeks in duration).
The old MIMIC II Waveform Database version 2 is still available for ongoing studies.
The MIMIC II Waveform Database Matched Subset contains 4,897 waveform records and 5,266 numerics records from the MIMIC II Waveform Database, which have been matched and time-aligned with 2,809 MIMIC II Clinical Database subjects.
Both components are still growing and additional records are posted as they become available.
- [Class 3] MIMIC-III Database. Consists of:
The *MIMIC-III Clinical Database - Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care is a large, single-center database comprising information relating to patients admitted to critical care units at a large tertiary care hospital. Data includes vital signs, medications, laboratory measurements, observations and notes charted by care providers, fluid balance, procedure codes, diagnostic codes, imaging reports, hospital length of stay, survival data, and more. Contains clinical records for >40000 subjects.
*This database is NOT open source. The Clinical Database is available to qualified investigators under terms of a data use agreement; see the getting access page for more details.
- There is currently no MIMIC-III Waveform Database
These databases include a variety of digitized physiologic signals in each recording. Please visit the links below for details.
- [Class 1] MGH/MF Waveform Database. This is a collection of 250 recordings of 3-lead ECGs, ABP, PAP, CVP, respiration, and airway CO2 signals from patients in critical care units; some recordings include intra-cranial, left atrial, ventricular and intra-aortic pressure waveforms. A Patient Guide provides additional information for each recording.
- [Class 2] CEBS Database. Combined measurement of ECG, Breathing, and Seismocardiograms Database (CEBSDB). A dataset of 60 records from 20 volunteers. Each record contains two ECGs, a respiration, and a seismocardiogram signals.
- [Class 2] Cerebral Haemodynamic Autoregulatory Information System. Multi-channel recordings of ECG, arterial blood pressure (ABP), and intracranial pressure (ICP) of patients diagnosed with traumatic brain injury (TBI).
- [Class 2] Preterm Infant Cardio-Respiratory Signals Database. Simultaneous ECG and respiration recordings of ten preterm infants collected from the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of the University of Massachusetts Memorial Healthcare.
- [Class 2; core] Physiologic Response to Changes in Posture. A collection of physiological signals (ECG and ABP) in ten healthy subjects in response to a slow tilt, a fast tilt, and a standing-up maneuver.
- [Class 2] Stress Recognition in Automobile Drivers. Recordings from healthy volunteers driving on a predefined route including streets and highways in and around Boston; signals recorded include ECG, EMG, galvanic skin resistance, and respiration.
- [Class 3; core] Apnea-ECG Database. This database has been assembled for the PhysioNet/Computers in Cardiology Challenge 2000. It consists of 70 ECG recordings, each typically 8 hours long, with accompanying sleep apnea annotations obtained from study of simultaneously recorded respiration signals, which are included for 8 of the recordings.
- [Class 3] CAP Sleep Database. The Cyclic Alternating Pattern (CAP) is a periodic EEG activity occurring during NREM sleep, and abnormal amounts of CAP are associated with a variety of sleep-related disorders. The CAP Sleep Database is a collection of 108 polysomnographic recordings from the Sleep Disorders Center of the Ospedale Maggiore of Parma, Italy. Each record includes 3 or more EEG signals together with EOG, chin and tibial EMG, airflow, respiratory effort, SaO2, and ECG signals, and reference sleep stage and CAP annotations, This database is intended to provide a useful number of carefully annotated examples of CAP in a representative variety of pathophysiologic contexts, for development and evaluation of automated CAP analyzers, as well as to support basic studies of the dynamics of CAP.
- [Class 3] CTU-UHB Intrapartum Cardiotocography Database. From the Czech Technical University (CTU) in Prague and the University Hospital in Brno (UHB), this database contains 552 cardiotocography (CTG) recordings, which were carefully selected from 9164 recordings collected between 2010 and 2012 at UHB. The CTG recordings start no more than 90 minutes before actual delivery, and each is at most 90 minutes long. Each CTG contains a fetal heart rate (FHR) time series and a uterine contraction (UC) signal, each sampled at 4 Hz. Each CTG is also accompanied by maternal, delivery, and fetal clinical details.
- [Class 3; core] Fantasia Database. ECG and respiration recordings, with beat annotations from 20 young and 20 elderly subjects, all healthy, in sinus rhythm during a resting state (two hours each). Half of the recordings also include (uncalibrated) continuous noninvasive blood pressure signals. A subset of these recordings posted here previously is still available.
- [Class 3; core] MIT-BIH Polysomnographic
Database. Includes new annotation files with sleep stage and
- [Class 2; core] Santa Fe Time Series Competition Data Set B (data extracted from the MIT-BIH Polysomnographic Database).
Unless specifically noted, each recording in these databases includes one or more digitized ECG signals and a set of beat annotations.
- [Class 1; core] ANSI/AAMI EC13 Test Waveforms. These 10 short recordings are specified by the current American National Standard for testing various devices that measure heart rate.
- [Class 1; core] European ST-T Database. The creators of this database, and the European Society of Cardiology, have contributed all 90 two-hour records of this database in their entirety. The reference annotation and header files for the remaining records are also available here.
- [Class 1; core] Long-Term ST Database. The creators of this database contributed half of it to PhysioNet in 2003, and the remaining records in 2007. Each of the 86 records is 21 to 24 hours long, and contains 2 or 3 ECG signals, annotated beat-by-beat and with respect to ST episodes, rhythm changes, and signal quality changes; each record also includes ST level time series based on 16-second averages centered on each beat. Two papers describing the database (from 1996 and 2000) are available here.
- [Class 1; core] MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database. This collection of 48 fully annotated half-hour two-lead ECGs is available here in its entirety. The MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database Directory is also available on-line.
- [Class 1; core] MIT-BIH Noise Stress Test Database. Twelve half-hour ECG recordings and 3 half-hour recordings of noise typical in ambulatory ECG recordings. The ECG recordings were created by adding calibrated amounts of noise to clean ECG recordings from the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database.
- [Class 1; core] STAFF-III Database. The STAFF III database was acquired during 1995–96 at Charleston Area Medical Center (WV, USA) where single prolonged balloon inflation had been introduced to achieve optimal results of percutaneous transluminal coronary angiography (PTCA) procedures, replacing the typical series of brief inflations. The database consists of standard 12-lead ECG recordings from 104 patients.
- [Class 2; core] BIDMC Congestive Heart Failure Database. Long-term ECGs (about 20 hours each) from 15 subjects with severe CHF (NYHA class 3-4).
- [Class 2] ECG effects of Dofetilide, Moxifloxacin, Dofetilide+Mexiletine, Dofetilide+Lidocaine and Moxifloxacin+Diltiazem in Healthy Subjects. The ECGDMMLD contains data from a randomized, double-blind, 5-period crossover clinical trial in healthy male and female subjects, 18 to 35 years of age, to compare the electrophysiological response of hERG potassium channel blocking drugs with and without the addition of late sodium or calcium channel blocking drugs.
- [Class 2] ECG Effects of Ranolazine, Dofetilide, Verapamil, and Quinidine in Healthy Subjects. The ECGRDVQ database contains multi-channel ECG recordings of subjects partaking in a randomized, double-blind, 5-period crossover clinical trial aimed at comparing the effects of four known QT prolonging drugs versus placebo on electrophysiological and other clinical parameters.
- [Class 2] ECG-ID Database. Between 2 and 20 short single-lead ECG recordings from 90 volunteers, collected to support studies of using the ECG for biometric identification. An excellent summary of the thesis for which this collection was assembled is also available.
- [Class 2; core] Post-Ictal Heart Rate Oscillations in Partial Epilepsy. Seven annotated single-lead ECG recordings, with times of seizures indicated. A study of these recordings is available here.
- [Class 2; core] QT Database. Over 100 fifteen-minute two-lead ECG recordings (many excerpted from other databases), with onset, peak, and end markers for P, QRS, T, and (where present) U waves of from 30 to 50 selected beats in each recording. A paper describing this database is available here.
- [Class 2] Smart Health for Assessing the Risk of Events via ECG (SHAREE) Database. 24-hour Holter recordings of 139 hypertensive patients recruited at the Centre of Hypertension of the University Hospital of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy.
- [Class 3; core] Abdominal and Direct Fetal ECG Database. Five-minute multichannel fetal ECG recordings, with cardiologist-verified annotations of all fetal heart beats, from five women in labor, from the Medical University of Silesia, Poland. Each record includes four signals from the maternal abdomen and a simultaneously recorded reference direct fetal ECG from the fetal scalp; all signals are sampled at 1 KHz with 16-bit resolution.
- [Class 3; core] AF Termination Challenge Database. This database has been compiled for the PhysioNet/Computers in Cardiology Challenge 2004. It consists of a learning set of 30 records and two test sets of 30 and 20 records. Each record contains a one-minute excerpt of a two-lead long-term ECG recording exhibiting either self-terminating or sustained atrial fibrillation; the challenge is to identify which records in the test set show self-terminating AF.
- [Class 3; core] Creighton University Ventricular Tachyarrhythmia Database. This database includes a preliminary set of beat annotations (all beats marked as normal) with additional annotations that indicate episodes of ventricular fibrillation/flutter.
- [Class 3] Electrocardiographic Imaging of Myocardial Infarction. This data set, collected for the Physionet/Computers in Cardiology Challenge 2007, contains 352-channel body surface potential maps for four subjects with moderate to large, relatively compact infarcts, together with MRI images and clinical summaries.
- [Class 3; core] Intracardiac Atrial Fibrillation Database. A collection of high-resolution recordings from eight subjects in atrial fibrillation or flutter; each recording includes three surface ECG signals and five intracardiac signals, all simultaneously recorded.
- [Class 3] Long-Term AF Database. A set of 84 long-term (24-hour) ECG recordings of subjects with paroxysmal or sustained atrial fibrillation. Each record contains two ECG signals and two sets of annotations. The original set includes unaudited markers produced by an automated QRS detector, with manual annotations of the terminations of AF episodes with durations of at least one minute. The new set contains manually reviewed reference beat type and rhythm annotations.
- [Class 3; core] Motion Artifact Contaminated ECG Database. Short duration ECG signals are recorded from a healthy 25-year-old male performing different physical activities to study the effect of motion artifacts on ECG signals and their sparsity.
- [Class 3; core] MIT-BIH Atrial Fibrillation Database (including signal files not previously released). Signal files for 23 of the 25 ten-hour records are available, along with reference rhythm annotations and unaudited beat annotations for all 25 records.
- [Class 3; core] MIT-BIH ECG Compression Test Database. This database is unannotated.
- [Class 3; core] MIT-BIH Long-Term Database. Six lengthy two-lead ECG recordings and one three-lead ECG recording.
- [Class 3; core] MIT-BIH Malignant Ventricular Arrhythmia Database. This database contains rhythm and signal quality annotations only (no beat annotations).
- [Class 3; core] MIT-BIH Normal Sinus Rhythm Database (including signal files not previously released). Also available: recordings excluded from the MIT-BIH Normal Sinus Rhythm Database (because of the presence of occasional ectopic beats).
- [Class 3; core] MIT-BIH ST Change Database. This database includes beat annotations but currently no ST change annotations. The recordings are primarily from exercise stress tests and exhibit transient ST changes.
- [Class 3; core] MIT-BIH Supraventricular Arrhythmia Database. Seventy-eight half-hour ECG recordings chosen to supplement the examples of SV arrhythmias in the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database.
- [Class 3] Non-Invasive Fetal Electrocardiogram Database. Fifty-five recordings of maternal and maternal+fetal ECGs recorded over a 20-week period from a single subject, in EDF+ format.
- [Class 3; core] PAF Prediction Challenge Database. This database has been compiled for the PhysioNet/Computers in Cardiology Challenge 2001. It consists of 100 record sets, each including a pair of 30-minute excerpts from a long-term ECG recording. Approximately half of the subjects have PAF immediately following one of the two 30-minute excerpts; among the 50 record sets in the learning set, the PAF can be studied by referring to 5-minute "continuation records" that accompany each 30-minute record. In the 50 record sets belonging to the test set, the challenge is to identify which records immediately precede PAF.
- [Class 3; core] PTB Diagnostic ECG Database. This database of 549 high-resolution 15-lead ECGs (12 standard leads together with Frank XYZ leads) includes clinical summaries for each record. From one to five ECG records are available for each of the 294 subjects.
- [Class 3] St. Petersburg Institute of Cardiological Technics 12-lead Arrhythmia Database. Seventy-five half-hour recordings extracted from 32 Holter records from patients undergoing tests for coronary artery disease, with reference annotation files containing over 175,000 beat annotations in all.
- [Class 3] Sudden Cardiac Death Holter Database. This is a collection of long-term ECG recordings of patients who experienced sudden cardiac death during the recordings. Half-hour excerpts of these recordings are available as the MIT-BIH Malignant Ventricular Arrhythmia Database.
- [Class 3] T-Wave Alternans Challenge Database. This database has been compiled for the PhysioNet/Computers in Cardiology Challenge 2008. It contains 100 2-, 3-, and 12-lead ECG records sampled at 500 Hz with 16-bit resolution over a ± 32 mV range, including subjects with risk factors for sudden cardiac death as well as healthy controls and synthetic cases with calibrated amounts of T-wave alternans.
Interbeat (RR) Interval Databases
These databases contain beat annotations only; the original ECG signals are unavailable.
- [Class 2] CAST RR Interval Sub-Study Database. Beat annotation files (about 24 hours each) from 809 subjects enrolled in the Cardiac Arrhythmia Suppression Trial (CAST), a landmark NHLBI-sponsored study. For 734 subjects, separate baseline (pre-treatment) and on-therapy records are available; the database consists of 1543 records, including roughly 150 million RR interval measurements.
- [Class 2; core] Congestive Heart Failure RR Interval Database. Beat annotation files (about 24 hours each) from 29 subjects with congestive heart failure (NYHA classes 1, 2, and 3).
- [Class 2; core] Exaggerated heart rate oscillations during two meditation techniques, with additional data from spontaneously and metronomically breathing controls, and from highly trained athletes. These data include times of beat occurrence only (the original ECGs are not currently available). A paper describing these data is available here.
- [Class 2; core] Normal Sinus Rhythm RR Interval Database. Beat annotation files (about 24 hours each) from 54 subjects in normal sinus rhythm.
- [Class 2; core] Spontaneous Ventricular Tachyarrhythmia Database (Version 1.0 from Medtronic, Inc.). This database contains 135 pairs of RR interval time series, recorded by implanted cardioverter defibrillators in 78 subjects. Each series contains between 986 and 1022 RR intervals. One series of each pair includes a spontaneous episode of ventricular tachycardia (VT) or ventricular fibrillation (VF), and the other is a sample of the intrinsic (usually sinus) rhythm.
Other Cardiovascular Databases
- [Class 2; core] Time Course Data for Blood Pressure in Dahl SS and SSBN13 Rats. Two-minute continuous non-invasive blood pressure recordings from 9 SS (salt-sensitive) and 6 SSBN13 Dahl rats. Each rat was recorded twice, initially while on a low-salt diet and subsequently while on a high-salt diet, in support of a study of the physiologic origins of baroreflex dysfunction in salt-sensitive hypertension.
Gait and Balance Databases
These databases contain stride interval (gait cycle duration) time series in text form (follow the links below for details).
- [Class 2; core] Gait Dynamics in Neuro-Degenerative Disease Database. A collection of 64 recordings of gait (including original foot signals) from 15 subjects with Parkinson's disease, 20 with Huntington's disease, 13 with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and 16 healthy controls.
- [Class 2; core] Gait in Aging and Disease Database (a "mini-collection" of data from healthy young and old volunteers, and patients with Parkinson's disease)
- [Class 2; core] Gait Maturation Database (a collection of data from healthy children ages 3-14)
- [Class 2; core] Long Term Movement Monitoring Database. 3-day 3D accelerometer recordings of 71 elder community residents, used to study gait, stability, and fall risk.
- [Class 2; core] Noise Enhancement of Sensorimotor Function. Measurements of postural sway in 27 healthy volunteers (15 young, 12 elderly), with and without subsensory stimulation of the soles of the feet using mechanical noise.
- [Class 2] Gait in Parkinson's Disease. A collection of multichannel recordings from force sensors beneath the feet of 93 patients with Parkinson's Disease, and 73 healthy controls, collected from three studies.
- [Class 2; core] Unconstrained and Metronomic Walking Database (a collection of long-term recordings of gait dynamics from 10 healthy young volunteers)
- [Class 3] Human Balance Evaluation Database. The HBEDB contains force platform recordings from 193 subjects undergoing stabilography tests. The subjects performed standing tasks under four different conditions: with their eyes opened or closed, while standing on a rigid or unstable surface.
Neuroelectric and Myoelectric Databases
- [Class 2] CHB-MIT Scalp EEG Database. EEG recordings of 22 pediatric subjects with intractable seizures, monitored for up to several days following withdrawal of anti-seizure medication to characterize their seizures and assess their candidacy for surgical intervention. In all, the onsets and ends of 182 seizures are annotated.
- [Class 2] EEG Motor Movement/Imagery Dataset. One- and two-minute recordings of 109 volunteers performing a series of motor/imagery tasks. Each record contains 64 channels of EEG recorded using the BCI2000 system, and a set of task annotations.
- [Class 2; core] Effect of Deep Brain Stimulation on Parkinsonian Tremor. Rest tremor velocity in the index finger of 16 subjects with Parkinson's disease, who receive chronic high frequency electrical deep brain stimulation.
- [Class 2] ERP-based Brain-Computer Interface recordings. Annotated 64-channel EEGs with 4-channel EOGs sampled at 2048 Hz from 10 subjects; 20 short records for each subject, generated while focusing on specified target characters displayed by a traditional matrix speller. This dataset was generated as part of a study aimed at identifying the factors limiting the performance of brain-computer interfaces based on event-related potentials (ERPs).
- [Class 2] Evoked Auditory Responses in Normals across Stimulus Level. Evoked auditory response in 8 healthy subjects across a wide range of stimulus levels, including 24-bit recordings of auditory brainstem response (ABR) and otoacoustic emission (OAE) signals, and psychoacoustic loudness estimates.
- [Class 2] Squid Giant Axon Membrane Potential. The SGAMP database contains single-unit neuronal recordings of squid giant axons in response to stimulus currents. The membrane potential and stimulus current are given for a total of 170 trials across 8 different axons.
- [Class 2] Icelandic 16-electrode EHG Database. 122 16-electrode electrohysterogram recordings from 45 pregnant women, obtained at the Akureyri Primary Health Care Centre, Landspitali University Hospital, and Akureyri Hospital in Iceland. These include 10 recordings of women in labor, as well as 112 recordings of women in their third trimester who were not currently in labor. Each record also includes a scanned copy of the printed tocograph.
- [Class 2] MAMEM Steady State Visually Evoked Potential Database The MSSVEP database contains 256 channel EEG recordings of 11 subjects under the stimulation of flickering lights, used to study the steady state visually evoked potentials.
- [Class 2] MMG Database. Uterine magnetomyographic (MMG) signals from 25 pregnant women, recorded using the 151 channel SARA (SQUID Array for Reproductive Assessment) system installed at UAMS, Little Rock, USA.
- [Class 2] Term-Preterm EHG Database. Electrohysterogram (EHG: uterine EMG) recordings obtained at the University Medical Centre Ljubljana from 300 pregnant women, including 262 who had full-term pregnancies and 38 whose pregnancies ended prematurely, and including 162 recordings made before the 26th week of gestation and 138 made later.
- [Class 3; core] Examples of Electromyograms. Short EMG recordings from three subjects (one without neuromuscular disease, one with myopathy, one with neuropathy).
- [Class 3; core] Samples of MR Images (magnetic resonance angiography images)
- [Class 2] Fetal ECG Synthetic Database. A large database of simulated adult and non-invasive fetal ECG (NI-FECG) signals, which provides a robust resource that enables reproducible research in the field. The data is generated using the FECGSYN simulator (visit website).
- [Class 2] Simulated Fetal PCGs. A set of 37 synthetic fetal phonocardiographic signals (PCGs) relative to different fetal states and recording conditions.
- [Class 2; core] Surrogate Data with Correlations, Trends, and Nonstationarities. Surrogate stationary time series with varying degrees of correlations, trends of several types, and various types of nonstationarities.
- [Class 2] neuroQWERTY MIT-CSXPD. Keystroke logs collected from 85 subjects with and without parkinsons disease (PD). This dataset has been collected and analyzed in order to indicate that the routine interaction with computer keyboards can be used to detect motor signs in the early stages of PD.
Computing in Cariology Challenge Databases
These databases contain the records used in the PhysioNet/CinC challenges. At the top of each database page is a link to its respective challenge page. See also the archived software contributions of the challenge entrants.
- 2009 Database. Predicting acute hypotensive episodes.
- 2010 Database. Mind the gap.
- 2011 Database. Improving the quality of ECGs collected using mobile phones.
- 2012 Database. Predicting mortality of ICU patients.
- 2013 Database. Non-invaside fetal ECG.
- 2014 Database. Robust detection of heart beats in multimodal data.
- 2015 Database. Reducing false arrhythmia alarms in the icu.
- 2016 Database. Classification of normal/abnormal heart sound recordings.
Databases of physiologic signals are also available from a few other sources. Among the best-known of these are the AHA and CSE databases. Information about these databases and others is available here.
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Updated Wednesday, 15 February 2017 at 04:16 SGT